Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to form and reorganize synaptic connections, especially in response to learning or experience or following injury.
Neuroplasticity corresponds to two fundamental processes:
Neurogenesis: can be defined as a process of generating new functional neurons from precursors, in embryos it is the principle of multiplying neurons and /or connections
Synaptic pruning: is responsible for the suppression of inefficient or unused connections during childhood and adolescence. This process participates in the fully in the brain neuroplasticity and so in our capacity to learn and memorize
At a cellular level several mechanisms intervene in the post lesions recovery
Mechanisms of repair: the reorganization of the afferents by sprouting could re-establish new synaptic connections
The process of substitution: the total or partial support of a function initially devolved to a damaged part of the brain by another part of the brain which has remained intact and which was initially not involved in the function
The compensation process: the lesion will result in changes in the dynamic character of cellular interactions, and functional recovery will be able to use these changes in the relationship between neuronal systems.